Kevin Tyrell, Head of Equities Strategy and Research, NYSE
With the quarterly expiration approaching on Friday, we reviewed trading from the December expiration to see shifts in price discovery behavior. One widely-known market structure feature is the increase in volume on inverted venues at the end of the trading day, when inverted venues can approach 20% of S&P 500 volume at certain points.
However, during key trading periods such as quarterly expirations, the shares available at primary exchanges1 far exceeds that of inverted venues. We looked at the December expiration’s average quoted size at the NBBO from primary exchanges and inverted venues, and find that primary exchanges’ quoted size at the end of the day increased 38% vs. a standard day2 while inverted venues increased just 18%.
This additional pre-trade displayed liquidity results in more intra-day trading activity flocking to the primary exchanges. Primary exchanges see an increase in volume every day heading in to the closing auction, and the trend is more dramatic on event days such as an expiration. The below chart shows shares trading in the S&P 500 by time period, exclusive of closing auction volume.
This is the “liquidity begets liquidity” argument on display, with greater displayed size enticing more liquidity-seeking flow. This increasing order volume allows limit order queues to process more quickly, a topic we’ll revisit in a future post.
1“Primary exchanges” refers to trading on the listed market (e.g., NYSE trading NYSE-listed and Nasdaq trading Nasdaq-listed).
2“Standard day” represents an average of December 1st - December 22nd trading activity, excluding December 15th
Multi-list options broke nearly all volume records in 2021, driven by the growth of retail participation: daily records (24 of the top 25 volume days of all-time came in 2021), monthly ADV records (April was the only month from 2021 not in the top 12 all-time), and yearly ADV records (37.3M ADV in 2021 was nearly 10M more than in 2020 and double the ADV in 2019).
Increased retail activity in the equities market has affected which stocks are trading the most, and when and where those stocks trade. We’ve previously highlighted retail’s impact on pre- and post-market volume and the opening auction, and now focus on the period immediately after the opening auction. Market participants often avoid this time of day due to higher volatility, an approach worth re-evaluating given current trends.
As the home of ETFs, the NYSE continuously works to strengthen market quality and provide the optimal trading environment for listing and trading ETFs. In April 2021, in service of this goal, the NYSE introduced new requirements and incentives for its industry-leading NYSE ETF Liquidity Program, including the assignment of additional market makers ("Less Active ETF Leads") for new and/or low-volume ETFs.